tiistai 26. kesäkuuta 2018

U.S. government statistics reveal that the flu vaccine is the most dangerous vaccine in America

U.S. government statistics reveal that the flu vaccine is the most dangerous vaccine in America

Image: U.S. government statistics reveal that the flu vaccine is the most dangerous vaccine in America

(Natural News) Even the bestselling flu vaccine is only the fifth most popular vaccine in the United States.
Prevnar, the vaccine used to prevent infection caused by pneumococcal bacteria; Gardasil, which supposedly prevents cervical cancer;
PENTAct-HIB, given to tiny infants to stave off diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b; and Infanrix/Pediarix, a vaccine indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, infection caused by all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus, and poliomyelitis; are all far more popular than the flu vaccine.

Nonetheless, a report released in 2013 by the Department of Justice, shows that more than half of all claims settled by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, also known as the Vaccine Court, were for injuries caused by the influenza vaccine.
As reported by Health Impact News, during the period covering 16 August to 15 November 2013, 139 claims were settled by the Vaccine Court, 70 of which received compensation. Of these settled claims, 42 – or 60 percent – were for injuries caused by the flu vaccine. The remaining 40 percent were for injuries caused by 11 other vaccines.

The greatest number of injuries by far that were reported as a result of the flu vaccine were for Guillain-Barré Syndrome, or GBS, a condition which the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke describes as follows:

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The first symptoms of this disorder include varying degrees of weakness or tingling sensations in the legs. In many instances the symmetrical weakness and abnormal sensations spread to the arms and upper body.
These symptoms can increase in intensity until certain muscles cannot be used at all and, when severe, the person is almost totally paralyzed. In these cases the disorder is life threatening – potentially interfering with breathing and, at times, with blood pressure or heart rate – and is considered a medical emergency.
Such an individual is often put on a ventilator to assist with breathing and is watched closely for problems such as an abnormal heart beat, infections, blood clots, and high or low blood pressure. Most individuals, however, have good recovery from even the most severe cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome, although some continue to have a certain degree of weakness.
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The flu vaccine: a toxic recipe for disaster

The injuries caused by the flu vaccine, as listed in the Department of Justice report, are not limited to Guillain-Barré Syndrome, however.

They also include:
neurological injury, peripheral neuropathy, painful myalgias, psychological sequella, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, corneal transplant failure, transverse myelitis, encephalitis, shoulder injury, bilateral optic neuritis resulting in permanent legal blindness, leukoencephalopathy, chemically-induced multiple sclerosis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, fibromyalgia, and death, among others.

To the uninformed it might seem shocking that a medical procedure considered safe by the mainstream medical community could cause such serious health problems. When one considers the flu vaccine’s ingredients and adjuvants, however, it becomes totally understandable.

For one thing, the flu vaccine contains 25,000 times more mercury than is legally allowed in water. For another, statistics confirm that vaccinated people are actually more susceptible to the flu and often get more ill than those who focus on building up their own body’s immune system.
Reports like these raise many issues. For example, considering the severity of the reactions and conditions linked to the flu vaccine in just a three-month period, and remembering that very few adverse vaccine reactions are ever reported, why is the mainstream media not shouting this information from the rooftops? Why is there virtually total media silence when it comes to the dangers of vaccines in general? Why are we not given this information when we choose to vaccinate ourselves and our children with these potentially deadly vaccines?

Sources include:

Gardasil is destroying young girls' ovaries and reproductive systems

Gardasil is destroying young girls' ovaries and reproductive systems


(NaturalNews) A new study has found that Merck & Co., the maker of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil, neglected to examine the drug's effect on the reproductive systems of women.

As a result of that neglect, as well as the inherent dangers behind the vaccine, an Australian girl has suffered debilitating consequences, with her ovaries completely destroyed, the website Elite Insight reported. The British Medical Journalwhich publicized the case of the 16-year-old girl, said the damage occurred three years after she was vaccinated.

The BMJ summarized:

"Its occurrence raises important questions about causation, which may signal other systemic concerns. This patient presented with amenorrhoea after identifying a change from her regular cycle to irregular and scant periods following vaccinations against human papillomavirus. She declined the oral contraceptives initially prescribed for amenorrhoea. The diagnostic tasks were to determine the reason for her secondary amenorrhoea and then to investigate for possible causes of the premature ovarian failure identified. Although the cause is unknown in 90% of cases, the remaining chief identifiable causes of this condition were excluded. Premature ovarian failure was then notified as a possible adverse event following this vaccination. The young woman was counselled regarding preservation of bone density, reproductive implications and relevant follow-up. This event could hold potential implications for population health and prompts further inquiry."

No prior testing?
"Parents should be warned by this example not to allow use of Garadsil in the case of their daughters," Elite Insight reported.

The recent study pointed out that the vaccine has the ability to severely damage the function of ovaries; in the case of the Australian 16-year-old, her destroyed ovaries led to very premature menopause.

As reported by Life Site News, Dr. Deirdre Little, the Australian physician who treated the girl and co-authored the BMJ report, provided researchers with solid evidence that Gardasil caused the destruction of the girl's fertility.

In addition, she pointed out that Merck has no supporting information regarding the effects of the vaccine on ovaries, which of course suggests that Merck either did no safety testing regarding the vaccine's effects on the female reproductive system, or has hidden the data.

What's more, the drug maker was able to get Gardasil approved via the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) despite incomplete fertility testing.

A report from Little said that before the Gardasil vaccine the girl in question had normal menstrual cycles, was thoroughly examined and tested, and did not have a family or personal medical history that would explain the premature menopause.

The girl was administered the vaccination in the fall of 2008, and by January 2009 her cycle had become irregular. Over the course of two years, her periods became increasingly light and irregular. By 2011, she had ceased having cycles altogether.

As Life Site News reported further:

"Dr. Little carried out numerous tests on the girl, including checking hormone levels and internal organ function, and diagnosed her as having 'premature ovarian failure.' She also found that the girl had no living egg cells.

"After investigating other possible causes of the girl's premature ovarian failure, Dr. Little was left with the Gardasil vaccination as the only remaining explanation."

'Denied a fundamental right'
In the report, entitled, "Premature ovarian failure 3 years after menarche in a 16-year-old girl following human papillomavirus vaccination," Little wrote that Merck had only tested Gardasil's effects on the testes of rats.

In contacting the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) of Australia – which is the equivalent of the United States' FDA – for information about the safety testing of Gardasil on ovaries, Little found that the TGA only had records of the tests on rat testes, but none on the effects of the drug on rat ovaries.

"Gardasil has been controversial from the beginning," noted Steven Mosher of the Population Research Institute.

"Tens of millions of young girls have received the Gardasil vaccine since its approval by the FDA six years ago. If even a tiny fraction of them have experienced infertility as a result, then these girl children have been denied a very fundamental right, that is, the right to decide how many children they want to have," he told Life Site News.


lauantai 23. kesäkuuta 2018

Cannabis over chemo - Woman says the oil cured her aggressive breast cancer in 5 months

Cannabis over chemo: Woman says the oil cured her aggressive breast cancer in 5 months

(Natural News) When Dee Mani, now 44, was diagnosed with breast cancer last March, her doctors suggested chemotherapy. She originally agreed to undergo one year of the treatment for her triple negative breast cancer – the deadliest type – but later had second thoughts.
After seeing her sister suffer and die after 
undergoing chemotherapy for cancer, the mother of two set out to find an alternative.

She decided to take cannabis oil after researching natural cancer remedies online.

She said she took one drop inside a capsule every night before going to bed because she didn’t care for the taste or texture of it on its own. Four months after her original diagnosis, her cancer had reduced significantly, and her doctors gave her the all-clear in August, just five months after starting cannabis oil.
She continues to take it to this day and says she plans to do so for the rest of her life as it has also helped her with problems like insomnia, a dust allergy, and back pain caused by slipped discs. She has also changed her diet and taken up meditation.

Lots of cannabis oil cancer treatment success stories

Stories like Mani’s are becoming less and less unusual as more people give cannabis oil a try. For example, a 33-year-old U.K. father, David Hibbitt cured what doctors deemed a “terminal” case of colon cancer with cannabis oil after radiation, chemotherapy and surgery all failed him. He had initially rejected the idea, but after being told he had just 18 months left to live, he was willing to try anything. Hibbitt used a high-potency variety known as Phoenix Tears and is now cancer-free. He also said that his “pain just seemed to disappear.”
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In another of the many stories that have emerged of cancer being successfully treated with cannabis oil, a three-year-old boy in Utah who was given just days to live by doctors because of leukemia is thriving thanks to the oil. After two months of chemo, Landon Riddle was refusing to eat and vomiting dozens of times a day. After researching cannabis oil treatment online, his family traveled to Colorado to gain access to it. After just a few days, his vomiting eased, his appetite returned, and he was showing signs of improvement. Months after the ordeal, he, too, was free of cancer.
Then there is the case of Darren Miller, who found out he had lung and pericardial heart sac cancer on the day he turned 50. Given just a year to live with chemotherapy, he and his wife decided to move to California, where he would be able to use cannabis oil. Seven months later, he was cancer-free. He believes it was the combination of chemotherapy and cannabis oil that cured his cancer.
Unfortunately, until there is more widespread acceptance of this type of treatment, it’s possible that some people who could benefit from it simply won’t be aware or willing to give it a try. Of course, there’s also the fact that should cannabis oil treatment go mainstream, Big Pharma would lose out on the billions of profits it makes from the cancer industry.
While some people have found success using cannabis oil in conjunction with chemotherapy, others have found it to be effective on its own, illustrating that the most mainstream method isn’t necessarily the only or best way to solve a problem.

Sources for this article include:

maanantai 18. kesäkuuta 2018

Who Is Rick Simpson and What Is Rick Simpson Oil (RSO)

Who Is Rick Simpson and What Is Rick Simpson Oil (RSO)?

After seeing a documentary highlighting the positive benefits of using cannabis, Simpson
inquired about medical marijuana but his doctor refused to consider it as a course of treatment.
He ended up sourcing cannabis of his own accord and saw a significant improvement in
his tinnitus and other symptoms.
In 2003, three suspicious bumps appeared on Simpson’s arm. The doctor agreed that the
bumps appeared to be cancerous and took a sample for a biopsy. Sure enough, the bumps
turned out to be basal cell carcinoma, a form of skin cancer.
Simpson had successfully treated his symptoms with cannabis in the past, and he had heard about a study from the Journal of the National Cancer Institute in which THC was found to kill cancer cells in mice.
He made the decision to treat his skin cancer topically, applying 
concentrated cannabis oil to a bandage and leaving the cancerous spots covered for several days.

After four days, he removed the bandages and the cancerous growths had disappeared.
Although his physician refused to acknowledge cannabis as a treatment alternative, Simpson was now a true believer in the medicinal powers of cannabis.
From then on out, he began cultivating his own cannabis and harvesting the plants to create his own specialized form of cannabis concentrate, now known as Rick Simpson Oil, or RSO.

It became his mission and goal to distribute cannabis oil to those who needed it, free of charge. He helped treat more than 5,000 patients with RSO, but his journey was not without its setbacks and struggles.
Simpson’s own doctor refused to acknowledge the benefits, and he faced arrest and
persecution in his native Canada.
His home was raided on multiple occasions and he had over 2,600 plants cut down and confiscated by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, but Simpson persevered and continued to distribute cannabis oil.
To this day, he continues to spread the word of his findings.

How to Make DIY Rick Simpson Oil at Home

Making your own RSO at home is not difficult, and the process isn’t all that different from making cannabutter or other kinds of infused cannabis oil. Rick Simpson recommends
indica cannabis strains for best results, although patients may prefer to use the cannabis strains that work best for their medical condition.
Note: This recipe will produce the full 60 grams of oil for a 90-day treatment regimen.
If you’re looking for a smaller treatment course, you can easily divide the recipe into smaller amounts. For example, one ounce of cannabis will produce 3-4 grams of RSO.

  • 1 pound of dried cannabis material (indica strain)
  • 2 gallons of solvent – 99% isopropyl alcohol (can also use butane, ethanol, or other solvent)
  • 5-gallon bucket
  • A deep bowl
  • Wooden spoon for stirring
  • Cheesecloth
  • Rice cooker
  1. Place dry cannabis material into the 5-gallon bucket and pour in the solvent until the
    plant matter is covered.
  2. Stir and crush the plant material with your wooden spoon while adding the solvent to
    your mixture. Continue stirring the mixture for about three minutes while the THC
    dissolves into the solvent. This will dissolve about 80% of the THC into the solvent.
  3. Drain the solvent from the plant material into your bowl using the cheesecloth.
    Place the plant material back in the bucket and add more solvent. Continue stirring for
    another three minutes.
  4. Drain the solvent from your plant material into your bowl using the cheesecloth and
    discard the remaining plant material.
  5. Transfer your solvent to your rice cooker until it is about ¾ full and turn on your rice

Note: While you don’t necessarily need a rice cooker, if you’ve never made RSO before,
rice cookers are exceptionally useful in this instance for maintaining a slow, steady temperature.
If your mixture heats above 300 degrees Fahrenheit (148 degrees Celsius), the 
cannabinoids will cook off and the RSO will be unusable. It is not recommended to use a Crockpot or slow cooker, as this may overheat your mixture.
  1. The rice cooker should maintain a steady temperature between 210 and 230 degrees
    Fahrenheit (100 to 110 degrees Celsius), which is the correct heat setting for
    decarboxylation to occur.
  2. As the rice cooker heats up, the solvent will slowly evaporate. Continue to add your
    mixture to the rice cooker gradually.
Note: Make sure your rice cooker is in an open, well-ventilated area, and avoid all flames,
stovetops, sparks, and cigarettes, as the solvent is highly combustible.
  1. Once the solvent has evaporated, siphon the oil into your syringe for easy dosing.
    The RSO will be thick, so if you have trouble dispensing it, run the syringe under hot
    water and the RSO mixture should dispense with ease.

How to Use RSO

For medical patients, it is always recommended to consult your physician before starting
any new treatment regimen. However, as there are many physicians who refuse to discuss
cannabis as a course of treatment, proceed with the Rick Simpson method at your own
For one patient, the goal is to gradually consume 60 grams of Rick Simpson Oil over the
course of a 90-day period.

Week 1: Start with three doses every day
  • Each dose should be about the size of half a grain of rice and should be administered
    once every eight hours (in the morning, noon, and night). The first dose will be about
    ¼ of a drop of RSO.
Weeks 2 through 5: Double your dose every four days
  • The average person will take between three and five weeks to reach the full dosage of
    one gram of RSO per day.
Weeks 5 through 12: Take one gram of RSO daily until you’ve consumed the full 60 grams.
  • Eventually, the patient will be taking about 8-9 rice-sized drops of RSO every eight hours.
The taste of the RSO may be slightly bitter or unpleasant, so patients may prefer to ingest
the oil by swallowing it directly or mixing it with other foods, such as bananas, to help mask the taste.
Note: Do not try to dab RSO, as it is made with high-proof solvent and could be
adverse to one’s health.

Side effects mostly include sleepiness, which is a natural part of the healing process.
Increasing the dose gradually will help minimize the psychoactive effects and keep your
tolerance to a functional level. Daytime sleepiness should fade within three to four weeks.
After a 12-week regimen of RSO, the patient may want to continue the treatment but it
should be at a significantly reduced rate.
About one to two grams of RSO per month is enough for a regular maintenance dose.
Rick Simpson Oil should not be considered a cure-all for medical conditions, but many
patients have experienced significant relief from their medical symptoms and conditions
with the use of RSO.
Have you ever used RSO? How has it impacted your life?

Let us know in the comments!

More  Information on  Cannabis  Concentrates

perjantai 15. kesäkuuta 2018



So based on a testimony published in the Gleaner newspaper Is The Soursop Tree
Keeping Yvonne Kirlew Alive?
 , I did some research and found some interesting bit
of information that I will share with you. 

10,000 times stronger than Chemo.

The Soursop Tree – Drug Co’s Don’t want you to know

The SourSop  tree is a miraculous natural cancer cell killer
10,000 times stronger than Chemo.
Why are we not aware of this?  It’s because some big corporation want to make back
their money spent on years of research by trying to make a synthetic version of it for
sale. Research shows that with extracts from this miraculous tree it now may be
* Attack cancer safely and effectively with an all-natural therapy that   does not cause
extreme nausea,    weight loss and hair loss
* Protect your immune system and avoid deadly infections
* Feel stronger and healthier throughout the course of the treatment
* Boost your energy and improve your outlook on life
The source of this information is just as stunning: It comes from one of America ‘s
largest drug manufacturers, the fruit of over 20 laboratory tests conducted since the
1970′s! What those tests revealed was nothing short of mind numbing…

Extracts from the tree were shown to:
* Effectively target and kill malignant cells in 12 types of cancer, including colon, breast,
prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer.
* The tree compounds proved to be up to 10,000 times stronger in slowing the growth
of cancer cells than Adriamycin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug!
* What’s more, unlike chemotherapy, the compound extracted from the Soursop tree selectivelyhunts
down and kills only cancer cells. It does not harm healthy cells!
The amazing anti-cancer properties of the Soursop tree have been extensively researched
– so why haven’t you heard anything about it? If Soursop extract is as half as promising
as it appears to be–why doesn’t every single oncologist at every major hospital insist on
using it on all his or her patients?
The spine-chilling answer illustrates just how easily our health–and for many, our very
lives(!)–are controlled by money and power.

Soursop–the plant that worked too well.

One of America’s biggest billion-dollar drug makers began a search for a cancer cure
and their research centered on Soursop, a legendary healing tree from the Amazon

Various parts of the Soursop tree–including the bark, leaves, roots, fruit and
fruit-seeds–have been used for centuries by medicine men and native Indians in
South America to treat heart disease, asthma, liver problems and arthritis.
Going on very little documented scientific evidence, the company poured money and
resources into testing the tree’s anti-cancerous properties–and were shocked by the
results. Soursop proved itself to be a cancer-killing dynamo.

But that’s where the Soursop story nearly ended.

The company had one huge problem with the Soursop tree–it’s completely natural, and
so, under federal law, not patentable. There’s no way to make serious profits from it.
It turns out the drug company invested nearly seven years trying to
synthesize two of the Soursop tree’s most powerful anti-cancer ingredients.
If they could isolate and produce man-made clones of what makes the Soursop so
potent, they’d be able to patent it and make their money back.
Alas, they hit a brick wall. The original simply could not be replicated.
There was no way the company could protect its profits–or even make back the millions
it poured into research.

As the dream of huge profits evaporated, their testing on Soursop came to a
screeching halt. Even worse, the company shelved the entire project and chose not
to publish the findings of its research!
Luckily, however, there was one scientist from the Soursop research team whose
conscience wouldn’t let him see such atrocity committed. Risking his career, he
contacted a company that’s dedicated to harvesting medical plants from the
Amazon Rainforest and blew the whistle.

Miracle unleashed.

When researchers at the Health Sciences Institute were alerted to the news of
Soursop, they began tracking the research done on the cancer-killing tree.
Evidence of the astounding effectiveness of Soursop–and its shocking cover-up–came
in fast and furious….
….The National Cancer Institute performed the first scientific research in 1976.
The results showed that Soursop’s “leaves and stems were found effective in attacking
and destroying malignant cells.” Inexplicably, the results were published in an internal
report and never released to the public…

Since 1976, Soursop has proven to be an immensely potent cancer killer in
20 independent laboratory tests, yet no double-blind clinical trials–the typical
benchmark mainstream doctors and journals use to judge a 
treatment’s value
–were ever initiated…

A study published in the Journal of Natural Products, following a recent study conducted
at Catholic University of South Korea stated that one chemical in Soursop was
found to selectively kill colon cancer cells at  “10,000 times the potency of (the
commonly used chemotherapy drug)

The most significant part of the Catholic University of South Korea report is that
Soursop was shown to selectively target the cancer cells, leaving healthy cells
Unlike chemotherapy, which indiscriminately targets all actively reproducing cells
(such as stomach and hair cells), causing the often devastating side effects of nausea
and hair loss in cancer patients.

A study at Purdue University recently found that leaves from the Soursop tree killed
cancer cells among six human cell lines and were especially effective against prostate,
pancreatic and lung 


Graviola -hedelmän ja -lehtien aineosat, annonaceus acetogenins, etsivät
nopeasti kasvavat, paljon energiaa tuhlaavat syöpäsolut ja estävät niiden ravinnon
ja hapen saannin.
- Graviolan aineosat pysäyttävät syöpäsolujen kasvun jo niiden energian-
, mitokondrioissa, Complex 1: n elektronisiirto -ketjussa.
Electron transport chain COMPLEX 1 (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase)


I entsyymi on NADH-dehydrogenaasi, II on sukkinaattidehydrogenaasi, III on sytokromi b-ckompleksi ja IV entsyymi on sytokromi-c-oksidaasi

Elektroninsiirtoketju on mitokondrion sisäkalvolla (eukaryootit) tai solukalvon kalvoproteiineissa (bakteerit) tapahtuva energiaa tuottava reaktiosarja,jossa sitruunahappokierrossa ja sitä edeltäneissä reaktioissa koentsyymeille NADH ja FADHsiirtyneitä elektroneja siirrellään elektroninsiirtoketjun entsyymiltä toiselle, jolloin elektronit menettävät potentiaalienergiaansa vähitellen, vapauttaen samalla energiaa.Vapautuvan energian avulla mitokondrion matriksista pumpataan protoneja mitokondrion kalvojen välitilaan, mikä aiheuttaa elektrokemiallisen gradientin eli potentiaali- ja protonikonsentraatioeron matriksin ja välitilan välille. Muodostunut gradientti purkautuu ATP-syntaasientsyymin kautta, jolloin muodostuu suurenergiaista fosfaattiyhdistettä, ATP:tä.

Electron transport chain
Electron transfer chain in the inner-membrane of mitochondrion. The electron transfer chain contains five complexes designated as complex I, II, III, IV, and V (F 1 F 0 -ATP synthase). The electrochemical H + gradient provided by these membrane-bound complexes serve as energy source for ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate by an F 1 F 0 -ATP synthase


The Annonaceous acetogenins are promising new antitumor and pesticidal agents that are found only in the plant family Annonaceae. 
Chemically, they are derivatives of long-chain fatty acids. Biologically, they exhibit their potent bioactivities through depletion of ATP levels via inhibiting complex I of mitochondria and inhibiting the NADH oxidase of plasma membranes of tumor cells. Thus, they thwart ATP-driven resistance mechanisms. This review presents the progress made in the chemistry, biology, and development of these compounds since December 1995

Understanding mitochondrial complex I assembly in health and disease

Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest multimeric enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is responsible for electron transport and the generation of a proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane to drive ATP production. Eukaryotic complex I consists of 14 conserved subunits, which are homologous to the bacterial subunits, and more than 26 accessory subunits. In mammals, complex I consists of 45 subunits, which must be assembled correctly to form the properly functioning mature complex. Complex I dysfunction is the most common oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disorder in humans and defects in the complex I assembly process are often observed.
The Warburg hypothesis, sometimes known as the Warburg theory of cancer,
postulates that the driver of tumorigenesis is an insufficient cellular respiration caused by 
insult to mitochondria.[1] The term Warburg effect describes the observation that

cancer cells, and many cells grown in-vitro, exhibit glucose fermentation even when
oxygen is present to properly respire. In other words, instead of fully respiring
in the presence of adequate oxygen,
cancer cells ferment.

He hypothesized that cancer, malignant growth, and tumor growth are caused by the
fact that 
tumor cells mainly generate energy (as e.g., adenosine triphosphate / ATP)
by non-oxidative breakdown of 
glucose (a process called glycolysis).
This is in contrast to "healthy" cells which mainly generate energy from oxidative
breakdown of 
Pyruvate is an end-product of 
glycolysis, and is oxidized within the mitochondria.

4.2. Annonaceous Acetogenins
AGEs are a unique class of C-35/C37 secondary metabolites derived from long chain
(C-32/C34) fatty acids in the polyketide pathway. They are usually characterized by a
combination of fatty acids with a 2-propanol unit at C-2 that forms a methyl-substituted
α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone []. Since the discovery of uvaricin from Uvaria accuminata 
in 1982, more than 500 AGEs have been identified from different parts of the plants in the
Annonaceae family [,]. Due to the special structures and extensive biological activities,
AGEs have attracted significant scientific interest in recent years.

Various biological activities have been reported for AGEs, including antimalarial,
antiparasitic and pesticidal activities
However, the biological activities of AGEs are primarily characterized with toxicity
against cancer cells and inhibitory effects against the mitochondrial complex I
(mitochondrial NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase)

Phytochemical investigations and biological studies on different parts of the A. muricata plant
resulted in the identification of a wide array of AGE compounds, as summarized in Table 1.
The chemical structures of the major acetogenins are shown in Figure 2.
To the best of our knowledge, at the time of preparation (January 2015) of the present
over 100 AGEs have been identified in A. muricata.


Electron Transport Chain |  8.12.2016
The Electron Transport Chain & complexes I-IV that pump protons out of the 
Mitochondria by the transfer of the electrons carried on NADH & FADH2 to maintain
the concentration 
gradient of the protons "high in the intermembrane space &
low in the matrix of the 

Characterization of the Annonaceous acetogenin, annonacinone, a natural product
inhibitor of  plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
(Scientific Reports volume 6, Article number: 36462 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep36462)

In this study, we evaluated a novel PAI-1 inhibitor, annonacinone, a natural product from
the Annonaceous acetogenins group

High plasma levels of PAI-1 are related to the development of thrombosis as well as
several other pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disturbances 


- Moreover PAI-1 is able to promote tumor angiogenesis and high PAI-1 level in solid
tumors are associated with a poor prognosis

In conclusion, our work showed that, as well as their other biological properties,
natural Annonaceous acetogenins, and particularly annonacinone, have an effect on
Indeed, annonacinone is a potent inhibitor of PAI-1 in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo.
Annonacinone mechanism of action and binding site on PAI-1 were also enlightened.
Altogether, annonacinone appears to be a very promising antithrombotic agent and should
be further studied.


 is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming
[1] The fibrinolytic system is closely linked to control of inflammation,
and plays a role in disease states associated with inflammation.
Plasmin is produced in
an inactive form, 
, in the liver.
PAI-1 is present in increased levels in various disease states, such as a number of
forms of 
cancer, as well as in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. It has been linked
to the increased occurrence of 
 in patients with these conditions.

Figure 5: Depiction of a putative binding mode of annonacinone against the active form of PAI-1

The serpin mechanism


Chemical structures of the major compounds isolated from Annona muricata.
Published online 2015 Jul 10. doi:  10.3390/ijms160715625