maanantai 11. marraskuuta 2019

Missing part of 'Warburg effect' could usher in new cancer therapies

Missing part of 'Warburg effect' could usher in new cancer therapies
About the author: Bryan Hubbard

November 4th 2019 in 

Scientists have discovered the final part of the Warburg effect—which shows how cancer cells feed off sugar to live and grow—that could herald in new cancer therapies to stop the disease progressing.
Nearly 90 years ago, German physician Otto Warburg noticed cancer cells behaved differently. Instead of using oxygen to turn food into energy, as healthy cells do, cancer cells feed off glucose.
A molecule, lactate, is the end-product of the Warburg effect, and scientists have assumed it is nothing more than a waste product. But a research team from the University of Chicago have discovered that lactate has an active part to play in the creation of other cells that also start feeding off glucose, and so become cancerous.
It is through the production of lactate that cancers spread, the researchers found, as they act as a regulator of other cells, changing the way they feed.
The process starts with immune system cells called macrophages. These cells produce lactate when there is a bacterial infection or a lack of oxygen supply in tumors. Although the lactate helps control damage during infection, it promotes the growth and spread of cancer cells.
A similar process happens in other diseases, too, such as sepsis, auto-immune disease, atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, diabetes and ageing, and so the discovery of lactate's role could open the way for therapies for these diseases as well.

References (Source: Nature, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1678-1)


Home, sports, fitness and travel - Video

Fingertip PulseOximeter, Blood Oxygen, PR and SPO2

Oxygen saturation refers to any material, most often in the blood and the red blood cells, bound oxygen in the relative amount.
Blood transporting amount of oxygen has an effect on, for example, alertness, breathlessness and pulse. Normal oxygen saturation in humans is at least 96%,
  • mild hypoxemia, i.e. oxygen deficiency 89-95%,
  • moderate 80-88% and
  • severe 80%
  • 100% is usually a sign of hyperventilation.

Warburg effect - Nobel laureate Otto Heinrich Warburg

The Nobel Prize winner Dr. Otto Warburg discovered that by lowering the oxygen concentration in tissue for a period of two days, 35%, normal cells became cancerous
In cancer patients, a blood oxygen saturation is lower than normal, usually in the order of about 60% (as measured by pulse oximetry)-

See Warburg hypothesis

Finger pulse oximeter for measuring oxygen saturation and pulse rate

A pulse oximeter is a device for measuring blood oxygen saturation, i.e. the blood and the red blood cells bound the relative amount of oxygen.

Real-time measurement of the oxygen saturation of a patient monitoring is a routine procedure in general and in patients undergoing particularly important for oxygen therapy and respiratory and heart condition monitoring of persons suffering from.
- Pulse/oxymeters is also used in sports to control the duration of the training. In addition to oxygen saturation, pulse oxymeters measure the patient's heart rate.!/Finger-Pulse-Oximeter-Spo2-PR-Fingertip-Oxygen-Monitor/p/51430647/category=13425257

Blood transporting amount of oxygen has an effect on, for example, alertness, breathlessness and pulse. 

Oxygen depletion may result from, for example, chronic lung disease, heart disease, decompensation or asthma attack 
Increased oxygen saturation (100%) is usually a sign of a hyperventilation, which may be due to anxiety or tension. If your test result differs from the normal, contact your nurse or doctor.

The most commonly used pulse oximeters are finger oximeter that is attached to the fingertip by clips and performing measurement of a finger non-invasively by the light source contained in the sensor. 

The pulse oximeter is based on the fact that the blood oxidized and unoxidized blood absorb different red and infrared rays.

- The same phenomenon appears to bluish due to venous blood and the blood vessel through the skin. Finger transmits the fingertip beams of different wavelengths, and measure the alterations of absorption during a pulse cycle.

The result is a oxygen saturation SpO2

Oxygen saturation and heart rate are immediately available on a pulse oximeter monitor.

  • A pulse oximeter is a device for measuring blood oxygen saturation, which is designed to measure the oxygen saturation without painful procedures.

OXYM2000 and OXYM2001

  • % SpO2 and pulse rate, which are displayed on the display device.
  • Easy to use.
  • Unit display is illuminated and the device is small in size (50 grams with batteries).
  • Low power consumption, two AAA batteries are sufficient for 30 hours of continuous use.
  • The remaining charge in the batteries indicated on the display.
  • Goes off automatically when the device is away from the finger 8 seconds.
  • A new generation of the pulse oximeter to measure oxygen saturation (SpO2) non-invasively, easily and painlessly a patient's fingertip. Suitable for adults and children over 4 years of age for home and hospital use.


  • Length: 57 mm
  • Height: 33 mm
  • Width: 30 mm

Technical information:

Adult SPO2 values
Measuring range: 35-99%
Resolution: ± 1%
accuracy SPO2: 70% - 99% range of + -2%, from 0% - 70% is not defined.
PR: 30 - 250 BPM ± 2% or 2 BPM

Measuring range: 30-240 BPM
Resolution: + - 1BPM
Accuracy: + - 2bpm

two AAA alkaline batteries or a rechargeable battery voltage: 2.6 - 3.6V (not included)

Included accessories:

  • 2 AAA batteries (not included, due to air freight safety)
  • Collar, by means of which device is easy to carry.
  • (Silicone, optional).
  • Shock Protection zippered pouch.

How does a pulse oximeter work?

The device transmits light beams of two frequencies: 660 nm (red) and 940 nm (infrared), which allows the device to determine both hemoglobin and hemoglobin oxygen values.

Classic examples of situations where required oxygen saturation/pulse meters, are for example an emergency and anesthesia.

Not recommended for children under 5 years of age. To obtain reliable results, we recommend a pediatric model for young children.

Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive method for monitoring a patient's O2 saturation

In its most common (transmissive) application mode, a sensor is Placed on a thin part of the patient's body, Usually a fingertip or earlobe , or in the case of an infant , across a foot. Light Wavelengths of two is passed through the patient to a photodetector.

The changing absorbance at each of the Wavelengths is Measured, Allowing determination of the absorbances due to the pulsing arterial blood alone, excluding venous blood, skin, bone, muscle, fat, and (in most cases) nail polish.


Finger Pulse Oximeter Spo2 PR
Fingertip Oxygen Monitor

- Shopping Bag at bottom of this page - 




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