keskiviikko 12. joulukuuta 2018

Vaccines linked to autism once again - Keele University

Mercury Destroys Brain Neurons - Video



Vaccines linked to autism once again 

Bryan Hubbard 
in 

Children with autism have 'extraordinarily high' levels of
a
luminium in their brains - and one source could be vaccinations, a scientist is claiming. Aluminium salts are added to vaccines to help stimulate the immune response.





Dr Christopher Exley of Keele University in the UK found some of the highest levels of aluminium ever recorded in the brains of five people who were autistic when they were alive.

The levels were similar in all the brains tested, even in the brain of a 15-year-old, which would rule out environmental factors being solely responsible. Levels in the brain sample were at least 10 times higher than should be seen in someone of his age.

"Perhaps we now have the putative link between vaccination and ASD (autism spectrum disorder), the link being the inclusion of an aluminium adjuvant (an immune-response activator) in the vaccine," Dr Exley wrote in an accompanying blog.
Most of the aluminium was found inside non-neuronal cells, which suggests that inflammatory cells—already loaded with aluminium—were entering the brain from an outside source and were passing the blood-brain barrier. The pattern is unique to ASD sufferers, he says.
There were several theories as to why ASD sufferers have such large amounts of the metal in their brains. They could have a genetic predisposition, which makes them more liable to accumulate and retain aluminium, or it could be the adjuvants in vaccines—or even a combination of the two.


References
(Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Biology, 2018; 46: 76-82)

Aluminium in brain tissue in autism

Under a Creative Commons license
open access

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology.
It is suggested to involve both 
genetic susceptibility and environmental factors including in the latter 
environmental toxins.
Human exposure to the environmental toxin 
aluminium has been linked, if tentatively, to autism spectrum disorder. Herein we have used transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure, for the first time, the aluminium content of brain tissue from donors with a diagnosis of autism. We have also used an aluminium-selective fluor to identify aluminium in brain tissue using fluorescence microscopy.
The aluminium content of brain tissue in autism was consistently high. The mean (standard deviation) aluminium content across all 5 individuals for each lobe were 3.82(5.42), 2.30(2.00), 2.79(4.05) and 3.82(5.17) μg/g dry wt. for the occipital, frontal, 
temporal and parietal lobes respectively. These are some of the highest values for aluminium in human brain tissue yet recorded and one has to question why, for example, the aluminium content of the occipital lobe of a 15
 year old boy would be 8.74 (11.59) μg/g dry wt.? Aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy was used to identify aluminium in brain tissue in 10 donors. While aluminium was imaged associated with neurones it appeared to be present intracellularly in microglia-like cells and other inflammatory non-neuronal cells in the meningesvasculaturegrey and white matter. The pre-eminence of intracellular aluminium associated with non-neuronal cells was a standout observation in autism brain tissue and may offer clues as to both the origin of the brain aluminium as well as a putative role in autism spectrum disorder.

Keywords


Human exposure to aluminium

Human brain tissue
Autism spectrum disorder
Transversely heated atomic absorption spectrometry
Aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy
1. Introduction




Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions of unknown cause. It is highly likely that both genetic [1] and environmental [2] factors are associated with the onset and progress of ASDwhile the mechanisms underlying its aetiology are expected to be multifactorial [3][4][5][6]. Human exposure to aluminium has been implicated in ASD with conclusions being equivocal [7][8][9][10]. To-date the majority of studies have used hair as their indicator of human exposure to aluminium while aluminium in blood and urine have also been used to a much more limited extent. Paediatric vaccines that include an aluminium adjuvantare an indirect measure of infant exposure to aluminium and their burgeoning use has been directly correlated with increasing prevalence of ASD [11]. Animal models of ASD continue to support a connection with aluminium and to aluminium adjuvants used in human vaccinations in particular [12]. Hitherto there are no previous reports of aluminium in brain tissue from donors who died with a diagnosis of ASD. We have measured aluminium in brain tissue in autism and identified the location of aluminium in these tissues.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Measurement of aluminium in brain tissues

Ethical approval was obtained along with tissues from the Oxford Brain Bank (15/SC/0639). Samples of cortex of approximately 1 g frozen weight fromtemporal, frontal, parietal and occipital lobes and hippocampus (0.3 g only) were obtained from 5 individuals with ADI-R-confirmed (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised) ASD, 4 males and 1 female, aged 15–50 years old (Table 1).
Table 1Aluminium content of occipital (O), frontal (F), temporal (T) and parietal (P) lobes and hippocampus (H) of brain tissue from 5 donors with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.
Donor IDGenderAgeLobeReplicate[Al] μg/g
A1F44O10.49
24.26
30.33
Mean (SD)1.69 (2.22)
F10.98
21.10
30.95
Mean (SD)1.01 (0.08)
T11.13
21.16
31.12
Mean (SD)1.14 (0.02)
P10.54
21.18
3NA
Mean (SD)0.86 (0.45)
AllMean (SD)1.20 (1.06)

A2M50O13.73
27.87
33.49
Mean (SD)5.03 (2.46)
F10.86
20.88
31.65
Mean (SD)1.13 (0.45)
T11.31
21.02
32.73
Mean (SD)1.69 (0.92)
P118.57
20.01
30.64
Mean (SD)6.41 (10.54)
Hip.11.42
AllMean (SD)3.40 (5.00)

A3M22O10.64
22.01
30.66
Mean (SD)1.10 (0.79)
F11.72
24.14
32.73
Mean (SD)2.86 (1.22)
T11.62
24.25
32.57
Mean (SD)2.81 (1.33)
P10.13
23.12
35.18
Mean (SD)2.82 (1.81)
AllMean (SD)2.40 (1.58)

A4M15O12.44
21.66
322.11
Mean (SD)8.74 (11.59)
F11.11
23.23
31.66
Mean (SD)2.00 (1.10)
T11.10
21.83
31.54
Mean (SD)1.49 (0.37)
P11.38
26.71
3NA
Mean (SD)4.05 (3.77)
Hip.10.02
AllMean (SD)3.73 (6.02)

A5M33O13.13
22.78
31.71
Mean (SD)2.54 (0.74)
F12.97
28.27
3NA
Mean (SD)5.62 (3.75)
T11.71
21.64
317.10
Mean (SD)6.82 (8.91)
P15.53
22.89
3NA
Mean (SD)4.21 (1.87)
AllMean (SD)4.77 (4.79)
The aluminium content of these tissues was measured by an established and fully validated method [13] that herein is described only briefly. Thawed tissues were cut using a stainless steel blade to give individual samples ofca 0.3 g (3 sample replicates for each lobe except for hippocampus where the tissue was used as supplied) wet weight and dried to a constant weight at 37 °C. Dried and weighed tissues were digested in a microwave (MARS Xpress CEM Microwave Technology Ltd.) in a mixture of 1 mL 15.8 M HNO3(Fisher Analytical Grade) and 1 mL 30% w/v H2O2 (BDH Aristar). Digests were clear with no fatty residues and, upon cooling, were made up to 5 mL volume using ultrapure water (cond.<0.067 μS/cm). Total aluminium was measured in each sample by transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TH GFAAS) using matrix-matched standards and an established analytical programme alongside previously validated quality assurance data [13].
...




3. Results

3.1. Aluminium content of brain tissues

The aluminium content of all tissues ranged from 0.01 (the limit of quantitation) to 22.11 μg/g dry wt. (Table 1). The aluminium content for whole brains (n = 4 or 5 depending upon the availability of hippocampus tissue) ranged from 1.20 (1.06) μg/g dry wt. for the 44 year old female donor (A1) to 4.77 (4.79) μg/g dry wt. for a 33 year old male donor (A5). Previous measurements of brain aluminium, including our 60 brain study [13], have allowed us to define loose categories of brain aluminium content beginning with ≤1.00 μg/g dry wt. as pathologically benign (as opposed to ‘normal’). Approximately 40% of tissues (24/59) had an aluminium content considered as pathologically-concerning (≥2.00 μg/g dry wt.) while approximately 67% of these tissues had an aluminium content considered as pathologically-significant (≥3.00 μg/g dry wt.). The brains of all 5 individuals had at least one tissue with a pathologically-significant content of aluminium. The brains of 4 individuals had at least one tissue with an aluminium content ≥5.00 μg/g dry wt. while 3 of these had at least one tissue with an aluminium content ≥10.00 μg/g dry wt. (Table 1). The mean (SD) aluminium content across all 5 individuals for each lobe were 3.82(5.42), 2.30(2.00), 2.79(4.05) and 3.82(5.17) μg/g dry wt. for the occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in aluminium content between any of the 4 lobes.

3.2. Aluminium fluorescence in brain tissues

We examined serial brain sections from 10 individuals (3 females and 7 males) who died with a diagnosis of ASD and recorded the presence of aluminium in these tissues (Table S1). Excitation of the complex of aluminium and lumogallion emits characteristic orange fluorescence that appears increasingly bright yellow at higher fluorescence intensities. Aluminium, identified as lumogallion-reactive deposits, was recorded in at least one tissue in all 10 individuals. Autofluorescence of immediately adjacent serial sections confirmed lumogallion fluorescence as indicative of aluminium. Deposits of aluminium were significantly more prevalent in males (129 in 7 individuals) than females (21 in 3 individuals). Aluminium was found in both white (62 deposits) and grey (88 deposits) matter. In females the majority of aluminium deposits were identified as extracellular (15/21) whereas in males the opposite was the case with 80 out of 129 deposits being intracellular. We were only supplied with 3 serial sections of each tissue and so we were not able to do any staining for general morphology which meant that it was not always possible to determine which subtype of cell was showing aluminium fluorescence.
Aluminium-loaded mononuclear white blood cells, probably lymphocytes, were identified in the meninges and possibly in the process of entering brain tissue from the lymphatic system (Fig. 1). Aluminium could be clearly seen inside cells as either discrete punctate deposits or as bright yellow fluorescence. Aluminium was located in inflammatory cells associated with the vasculature (Fig. 2).

In one case what looks like an aluminium-loaded lymphocyte or monocyte was noted within a blood vessel lumen surrounded by red blood cells while another probable lymphocyte showing intense yellow fluorescence was noted in the adventitia (
Fig. 2b).

Glial cells including microglia-like cells that showed positive aluminium fluorescence were often observed in brain tissue in the vicinity of aluminium-stained extracellular deposits (
Fig. 3Fig. 4). Discrete deposits of aluminium approximately 1 μm in diameter were clearly visible in both round and amoeboid glial cell bodies (e.g. Fig. 3b). Intracellular aluminium was identified in likely neurones and glia-like cells and often in the vicinity of or co-localised with lipofuscin (Fig. 5).

Aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy was successful in identifying aluminium in extracellular and intracellular locations in neurones and 
non-neuronal cells and across all brain tissues studied (
Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5). The method only identifies aluminium as evidenced by large areas of brain tissue without any characteristic aluminium-positive fluorescence (Fig. S1).





Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 5

4. Discussion

The aluminium content of brain tissues from donors with a diagnosis of ASDwas extremely high (Table 1). While there was significant inter-tissue, inter-lobe and inter-subject variability the mean aluminium content for each lobe across all 5 individuals was towards the higher end of all previous (historical) measurements of brain aluminium content, including iatrogenic disorders such as dialysis encephalopathy [13][15][16][17][18][19]. All 4 male donors had significantly higher concentrations of brain aluminium than the single female donor. We recorded some of the highest values for brain aluminium content ever measured in healthy or diseased tissues in these male ASD donors including values of 17.10, 18.57 and 22.11 μg/g dry wt. (Table 1). What discriminates these data from other analyses of brain aluminium in other diseases is the age of the ASD donors. Why, for example would a 15 year old boy have such a high content of aluminium in their brain tissues? There are no comparative data in the scientific literature, the closest being similarly high data for a 42 year old male with familial Alzheimer’s disease (fAD) [19].
Aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy has provided indications as to the location of aluminium in these ASD brain tissues (Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4,Fig. 5). Aluminium was found in both white and grey matter and in both extra- and intracellular locations. The latter were particularly pre-eminent in these ASD tissues. Cells that morphologically appeared non-neuronal and heavily loaded with aluminium were identified associated with the meninges (Fig. 1), the vasculature (Fig. 2) and within grey and white matter (Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5). Some of these cells appeared to be glial (probably astrocytic) whilst others had elongated nuclei giving the appearance of microglia [5]. The latter were sometimes seen in the environment of extracellular aluminium deposition. This implies that aluminium somehow had crossed the blood-brain barrier and was taken up by a native cell namely the microglial cell. Interestingly, the presence of occasional aluminium-laden inflammatory cells in the vasculature and the leptomeninges opens the possibility of a separate mode of entry of aluminium into the brain i.e. intracellularly. However, to allow this second scenario to be of significance one would expect some type of intracerebral insult to occur to allow egress of lymphocytes and monocytes from the vasculature [20]. The identification herein of non-neuronal cells including inflammatory cells, glial cells and microglia loaded with aluminium is a standout observation for ASD. For example, the majority of aluminium deposits identified in brain tissue in fAD were extracellular and nearly always associated with grey matter [19]. Aluminium is cytotoxic [21] and its association herein with inflammatory cells in the vasculature, meninges and central nervous system is unlikely to be benign. Microglia heavily loaded with aluminium while potentially remaining viable, at least for some time, will inevitably be compromised and dysfunctional microglia are thought to be involved in the aetiology of ASD [22], for example in disrupting synaptic pruning [23]. In addition the suggestion from the data herein that aluminium entry into the brain via immune cells circulating in the blood and lymph is expedited in ASD might begin to explain the earlier posed question of why there was so much aluminium in the brain of a 15 year old boy with an ASD.
A limitation of our study is the small number of cases that were available to study and the limited availability of tissue. Regarding the latter, having access to only 1 g of frozen tissue and just 3 serial sections of fixed tissue per lobe would normally be perceived as a significant limitation. Certainly if we had not identified any significant deposits of aluminium in such a small (the average brain weighs between 1500 and 2000 g) sample of brain tissue then such a finding would be equivocal. However, the fact that we found aluminium in every sample of brain tissue, frozen or fixed, does suggest very strongly that individuals with a diagnosis of ASD have extraordinarily high levels of aluminium in their brain tissue and that this aluminium is pre-eminently associated with non-neuronal cells including microglia and other inflammatory monocytes.





5. Conclusions

We have made the first measurements of aluminium in brain tissue in ASDand we have shown that the brain aluminium content is extraordinarily high. We have identified aluminium in brain tissue as both extracellular and intracellular with the latter involving both neurones and non-neuronal cells. The presence of aluminium in inflammatory cells in the meningesvasculature,grey and white matter is a standout observation and could implicate aluminium in the aetiology of ASD.

Professor Chris Exley

Chis Exley largeProfessor in Bioinorganic Chemistry
Honorary Professor, UHI Millennium Institute

The Birchall Centre
Lennard-Jones Laboratories
Keele University
Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK.
Tel: +44 1782 734080
Fax: +44 1782 712378
Email: c.exley@keele.ac.uk
Staff Profile
Group Leader - Bioinorganic Chemistry Laboratory
I am a Biologist (University of Stirling) with a PhD in the ecotoxicology of aluminium (University of Stirling). My research career (1984-present) has focussed upon an intriguing paradox; 'how come the third most abundant element of the Earth's crust (aluminium) is non-essential and largely inimcal to life'. Investigating this mystery has required research in myriad fields from the basic inorganic chemistry of the reaction of aluminium and silicon to the potentially complex biological availability of aluminium in humans. I am also fascinated by the element silicon in relation to living things which, as the second most abundant element of the Earth's crust, is also almost devoid of biological function. One possible function of silicon is to keep aluminium out of biology (biota) and this forms a large part of the research in our group. We are also interested in biological silicification. 
Publications See this list.
___






British 2017 Study:
‘We Have Found The Link Between Vaccines And Autism’







UK 2017 study confirms strong link between aluminium in vaccines and autism


A new UK study reveals that autistic children have up to 10 times more aluminium in their brains than what is considered safe in adults. 
Study author Professor Chris Exley from Keele University claims that the research proves that aluminium found in vaccines is causing many children to develop autism.
“Perhaps we now have the link between vaccination and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the link being the inclusion of an aluminium adjuvant in the vaccine,” Professor Keele said

Hippocraticpost.com reports: The researchers speculate autism sufferers may have genetic changes that cause them to accumulate aluminium which healthy people are able to remove.
The findings are controversial after the disgraced gastroenterologist Andrew Wakefield said in 1995 that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is linked to bowel disease and autism.
Mr Wakefield’s view has since been widely discredited, however, the World Health Organization claims people’s fear of vaccines means many, particularly young children, are unprotected against measles.
In a piece for The Hippocratic Post, Professor Exley discusses how aluminium accumulates in the brains of autism sufferers and if vaccines may be to blame.
Aluminium enters the brain and accumulates
Research at Keele University, published in the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, provides the strongest indication yet that aluminium is a cause of ASD.
The aluminium content of brain tissues from five donors who died with a diagnosis of ASD was found to be extraordinarily high; some of the highest values yet measured in human brain tissue.
Why for example, would one of the four major brain lobes of a 15-year-old boy with autism be 8.74 (11.59) micrograms/g dry weight – a value which is at least 10 times higher than might be considered as acceptable for an adult never mind a child?
Yet, while the aluminium content of each of the five brains was shockingly high it was the location of the aluminium in the brain tissue which served as the standout observation.
The majority of aluminium was identified in non-neuronal cells, which are involved in maintaining a constant internal environment.
Aluminium was also found in inflammatory cells in the brain, alongside clear evidence of inflammatory cells heavily loaded with aluminium entering the brain via the surrounding membranes and those that separate the brain from circulating blood.
The fact that the majority of aluminium found in brain tissues in ASD was within cells and associated with tissues that maintain the body’s internal environment is, at least for now, unique to ASD and may begin to explain why young adolescents had so much aluminium in their brains.
Autism sufferers may be less able to remove built-up aluminium 
Perhaps there is something within the genetic make-up of specific individuals which predisposes them to accumulate and retain aluminium in their brain, as is similarly suggested for individuals with genetically passed-on Alzheimer’s disease.

The new evidence strongly suggests aluminium is entering the brain in ASD via inflammatory cells which have become loaded up with aluminium in the blood and/or lymph, much as has been for certain immune cells at injection sites for vaccines that contain aluminium to increase the body’s immune response.

https://newspunch.com/2017-study-vaccines-autism/

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Watch What #Mercury Does To A Brain Neuron In Just 20 Minutes https://t.co/aA6E1OeVmQ #Vaccines pic.twitter.com/abIG4GMU1j
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