tiistai 12. helmikuuta 2019

The US Breast Cancer Epidemic 2019

The US Breast Cancer Epidemic 2019

    Despite massive research and hype over many decades, the U.S. remains deeply mired in a breast cancer epidemic. There will be an estimated 271,270 new cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2019. Of this number, 268,270 will be female cases and 2,670 will be male cases. These numbers do not include the over 60,000 cases of female in situ breast cancer also to be diagnosed in 2019. 
In situ breast cancer is contained in the area of original growth, but has potential to become invasive.
There will be an estimated 42,260 deaths from breast cancer in 2019. 
[1]  All of these numbers are higher than stats for last year.




     In 1960, one in 14 women developed breast cancer. Today the number is one in eight. The rate of invasive breast cancer in young women 29 to 35 years old has doubled since 1976. [2] The picture below shows how aggressive this disease can be and why millions of women end up with a mastectomy in a desperate effort to stop its progression and metastasis.
Because Wi-radiation has the potential to initiate and promote the growth of breast cancer, t
his picture should be on the packaging of all Wi-devices, along with adequate medical warnings.





     Medical science reveals that there are many intertwining factors involved in the numerous varieties of breast cancer including: genetics, toxic chemicals, hormone disturbances and even pathogens. Now there is evidence that Wi-radiation may be a "race track" to this disease.  For decades millions of American girls and women have cultivated an intimate relationship with their cordless phones, smart phones and tablets. Many keep these wireless devices on or near their bodies continually, believing that instant connectivity equals safety. It turns out that this Wi-habituation may be suicide. 
     In late 2013, six medical experts, representing five prestigious California medical establishments, published a paper on young women who developed invasive breast cancer after prolonged exposure to their cell phones: “We report a case series of four young women --ages from 21 to 39-- with multi-focal invasive breast cancer that raises the concern of a possible association with non-ionizing radiation of electromagnetic field exposures from cellular phones.  Pathology of all four cases show striking similarity. These cases raise awareness to the lack of safety data of prolonged direct contact with cellular phones.  All patients regularly carried their smart phones directly against their breasts, in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones...." [3]

    Multifocal breast cancer occurs when multiple tumors break off from the original tumor and start to grow separately from the original. All four of the young women cited in the report developed tumors with nearly identical morphology, while none of them had any known breast cancer risk. Each of the four cases is instructive as to what millions of unsuspecting women in the US could be facing:

1. Patient One (21 years old) kept her cell phone in her bra for several hours each day and developed extensive ductal carcinoma so aggressive that she suffered bloody nipple discharge. She was treated with a mastectomy.

2. Patient Two (21 years old) kept her phone in her bra eight hours a day for six years and developed multiple, large invasive lesions in her left breast. Doctors were forced to complete a mastectomy and her cancer was subsequently found to have spread to her lymph nodes and also to her bones.

3. Patient Three (39 years old) kept her cell phone in her bra for eight years, often using the GPS application while jogging. She developed six suspicious lesions in her breast. Mastectomy revealed metastasis to her lymph system.

4. Patient Four (39-year-old) kept her cell phone in her bra for ten years, often using a Bluetooth headset which kept the phone transmitting for hours each day. She developed four separate ductal carcinomas and mastectomy revealed lymph node metastatic disease.
    What is striking about the four women discussed in this study is not only the unusually young age at which they suffered multi-focal breast cancer, but also the relatively short incubation time of their cancers. Tobacco smoking typically takes 20-30 years to induce lung cancer. The latency period between asbestos exposure and cancer can be up to 40 years. But these four women developed cancer within a five to ten-year period of breast irradiation, just as many brain tumor victims are being diagnosed with head and neck malignancies after about ten years of Wi-phone irradiation. 
    The central question is this: out of millions of U.S. breast cancer victims, are the four women cited in the California study theonly people in the nation whose prolonged exposure to personal wireless devices has resulted in the development of aggressive breast cancer? How many women (and men) have died in the Microwave Age without knowing that their breast cancer was initiated and promoted by wireless radiation exposure?
   Epidemiologist Dr. Devra Davis, author of many scientific studies, confirms that U.S. regulatory and health agencies have every reason to know about the virulent carcinogenicity of Wi-technologies and she warns: “Experimental studies show that cell phone radiation accelerates the growth of breast cancer.” Dr. Davis explains on her website that "the soft fatty tissue of the breast readily absorbs this radiation." [4]  As early as 1982, medical researchers reported that RF/microwave radiation enhances the growth rate of spontaneous mammary tumors. [5] 

    Recent research confirms that female breast tissues are also highly susceptible to the damaging effects of ionizing radiation from X-rays, CT scans and mammograms, especially the new "superhot" 3D mammograms. By 2010, researchers at the Department of Energy's Berkeley National Laboratory announced: "Our work shows that radiation can change the microenvironment of breast cells and this in turn can allow the growth of abnormal cells with a long-lived phenotype that have a much greater potential to be cancerous." [6] 

   While medical science and wireless device manuals now warn against prolonged body contact with radiating microwave antennas, Wi-devices are being forced upon even America's youngest school children. From a medical standpoint, this is sheer child abuse perpetrated by uninformed parents, complicit educators and the predatory Wi-radiation Industry.


    



      
    Millions of young girls, the most radiation-sensitive of our population, keep powerful Wi-tranceivers directly on or very near their bodies for many hours each day, both in school and at home. The microwaves blazing into their breast tissues are powerful enough to transmit pulsed data for miles at the speed of light.
And this wave pollution is documented to inflict
DNA damage equivalent to that of ionizing X-radiation. [7] Therefore, these youngsters are continually "X-raying" their breast tissues along with their reproductive organs, which contain the primordial cells of their future offspring. 
   This horrific situation is certain to result in a bountiful, nationwide breast cancer harvest for decades to come. The California doctors who issued the 2013 breast cancer report confirm that the developing breasts of young girls are especially sensitive to Wi-radiation. 
They state:
 “Children and young adults are now more likely to be using mobile devices and are among some of the heaviest users. This group is potentially at greatest risk of harm from EMR, as dividing tissue, such as that occurring in prepubertal breast buds, is more prone to the adverse effects of radiation."  It is negligent and criminal that neither U.S. regulatory agencies, nor those who profit from wireless technologies, are warning young girls and their parents that addictive wireless toys increase future risk of expensive surgery/chemo, pain, disfigurement and even early death. 
   The California cell phone/breast cancer report is an eye-opener.  Please share this important information with wives, sisters, mothers, daughters, granddaughters and also with boys and men who carry their mobile devices in shirt pockets over the heart/chest area.

Wi-Workers:
Considered Disposable by Corporate America


     Pictured here at work is a young woman of childbearing age required to wear directly on her body a large wireless tablet computer so that she can take service orders directly from the Internet. This powerful microwave device, equipped with multiple antennas, is network-connected and it actively broadcasts modulated, high-frequency microwaves directly into her internal organs.



    Positioned directly against her body, the Wi-device brings to mind the vendor warning mandated by the City of Berkeley, California:


“To assure safety, the Federal Government requires that cell phones meet radiofrequency (RF) exposure guidelines. If you carry or use your phone in a pants or shirt pocket or tucked into a bra when the phone is ON and connected to a wireless network, you may exceed the federal guidelines for exposure to RF radiation. Refer to the instructions in your phone or user manual for information about how to use your phone safely.” [8]
   This grotesque occupational hazard also brings to mind the 2013 published paper by breast cancer specialists in California:
“We report a case series of four young women --ages from 21 to 39-- with multi-focal invasive breast cancer that raises the concern of a possible association with non-ionizing radiation of electromagnetic field exposures from cellular phones. Pathology of all four cases show striking similarity. These cases raise awareness to the lack of safety data of prolonged direct contact with cellular phones. All patients regularly carried their smart phones directly against their breasts, in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones...." [cited above]
    Therefore, how much greater is the risk of wearing a huge, networking, multi-antenna system directly against the body for hours each day? As this young woman moves about her environment, an adjustable strap allows her to swing her cancer-induction device over to her back where it irradiates at nearfield her spine and kidneys.
When not walking, she wears the tablet in front where she efficiently "nukes" her stomach, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, large and small intestines, uterus, ovaries and urinary bladder. One recent scientific study found that rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for 8 hours of talk time and 16 hours of standby time for 20 days suffered severe bladder inflammation. [9]

This brings to mind the epidemic of female bladder problems in the USA, including: overactive bladder, leakage and frequent infections (cystitis), as confirmed by continuous media ads regarding these conditions.
     Her body is additionally encumbered with a variety of other wireless devices: merchandise scanners, an in-store radio and her personal cell phone tucked into a pocket. To top it off, the retail store in which she works is "rocking" with a variety of microwave frequencies that make the commercial wireless system work. This gal is a true Microwave Woman in action.

    These days, millions of other women in the workplace are subjected to massive and chronic exposure to non-ionizing radiation with documented potential to produce virulent cancers, as confirmed by the federal NTP rat studies. [10] Women are required towear on their bodies a variety of wireless radio devices, including powerful walkie talkies, irradiating the same internal body parts over a span of months or years. Dr. David Carpenter of Harvard University, a physician who has worked in public health for two decades, says there is convincing and consistent evidence that RF/microwave radiation exposure over time increases the risk of cancer: 
"The evidence to date shows clearly that men that have cell phones in their pocket or on their belt, leaving it on for long periods of time, suffer reduced sperm counts. Nobody has really done the study yet, but I will predict that men who wear their cell phone in the on mode on their belt are going to be found to have increased risk for GI cancers, prostate cancer and other pelvic cancers." [11] 
   There is much evidence that females are especially vulnerable to such radiation exposure. RF/microwaves routinely invading female pelvic and other internal organs are well-documented to drastically damage human DNA, of major concern since "cancer is caused by mutations in the DNA of cells which leads to uncontrolled cell growth instead of orderly growth." [12]



National statistics from the American Cancer Society
on estimated new female cancer cases for 2019:

• genital cancers (uterus, ovary, vagina, vulva) 109,000
• urinary cancers (bladder, kidney, ureter) 49,770 
• digestive system cancers (stomach, bowel, liver, pancreas, gall bladder) 141,950
Add the numbers: 300,720 women in the US to be diagnosed in 2019
 with invasive cancer of the very organs this woman is directly exposing
to her carcinogenic, on-the-body Wi-tablet at work! [13]



    Ironically, the American Cancer Society devoted a comprehensive section of its 2018 annual report on ovarian cancer, a horrific condition to be newly diagnosed in an estimated 22,530 US women in 2019. This type of cancer is particularly treacherous because there are few symptoms until it is greatly advanced. For this reason, there is a very low survival rate for this deadly disease.

   And so we see how ruthlessly corporations and small businesses herd American women into unsafe work practices and environments. This slow-kill genocide is perpetrated with the blessing of: the US Congress, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the neutered Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), all of which have been brazenly co-opted by the Wireless Radiation Industry. It may be years before the woman seen above wearing the Wi-computer, plus millions of uninformed workers like her, are diagnosed with cancer or other diseases and disabilities from their microwave radiation exposures on the job. But the latest science assures us that there WILL BE A PRICE TO BE PAID, the same as that incurred by diathermy technicians, radar victims and asbestos workers of yesteryear.

    Of course, the horrific effects on human reproduction and on millions of radiation-damaged babies across America are part of this sordid story. RF/microwave radiation unleashes profound effects upon pregnancy and fetal development, according to numerous studies.  If sperm cells can be eviscerated by energy from wireless technologies, so can radiation-sensitive ova cells within the female reproductive systemDr. Robert J. Rowen, M.D., warns: "If sperm DNA becomes damaged by proximity to Wi-Fi, it is most reasonable to assume that any DNA in proximity to the radiation will also become deranged." [14]  Most impressive is the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) study, published in 2017, showing that pregnant women exposed to higher levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from any source suffered 2.7 times the risk of miscarriage than those with lower exposure. [15]

    In 2018, scientists reported in the International Journal of Radiation Biology that young rats exposed for only one hour per day to 900 megahertz microwaves --a frequency used widely for wireless technologies, including smart meters and cell phones-- suffered severe damage to their ovaries and egg follicles. The irradiated rats were compared to a group of non-irradiated rats whose ovaries remained normal.
The microwaved animals suffered shrunken ovarian cells and abnormal leukocyte infiltration within the egg follicles. Their biochemistry and hormone levels were skewed and their tissue oxidative stress was very high.  Most importantly, the irradiated rats showed significantly lower numbers of secondary egg follicles than control rats. 

The conclusion of this study: 
"A total of 900-MHz EMF applied in middle and late adolescence may cause changes in the morphology and biochemistry of rat ovarium [Latin for ovaries].[16] 

Since medical science considers rat studies to be predictive of human outcomes, this report is additional evidence that relentless wireless radiation, aimed with precision at our entire female population, is a deliberate or inadvertent human population control mechanism.  
    
    Sadly, damaged ovaries and egg follicles can produce damaged babies. We are assured that the school rooms of America will be increasingly crowded with Wi-damaged children whose working mothers and fathers were forced, as a condition of employment, to poison their reproductive organs with RF/microwave radiation which meets Bradford Hill criteria as a confirmed human carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen. [17] Thanks to ignorance and greed, current and future generations are to be assaulted with potent wave carcinogen from their very seed.
    Note that the active radio antenna seen below, mounted upon the ovary and uterus of a young working woman, is confirmed powerful enough to send pulsed, information-bearing radio waves for miles! Yet, her employer has not provided this worker with full disclosure about the bio-hazards and reproductive consequences of wireless radiation broadcasting directly on the body.
She does not know that the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR 2.1091), which addresses radiofrequency radiation exposure, says this:
"For purposes of this section, a mobile device is defined as a transmitting device designed to be used in other than fixed locations and to generally be used in such a way that a separation distance of at least 20 centimeters [about 8 inches] is normally maintained between the transmitter's radiating structure(s) and the body of the user or nearby persons." [18]


Get ready, Corporate America, you will ONE DAY PAY!




References

1.  Cancer Facts and Figures, American Cancer Society, 2019.
2. "Breast Cancer Among Young Women Increasing," Los Angeles Times, 02-26-2013.
3. "Multi-Focal Breast Cancer in Young Women with Prolonged Contact Between Their Breasts and Their Cell Phones," West et al., Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Case Reports in Medicine, Article ID 354682, 08-19-2013.
4. "To Avoid Breast Cancer, Take That Cell Phone Out of Your Bra," Dr. Devra Davis, Environmental Health Trust, 09-21-2011. Dr. Davis' website is EHTrust.org.  Here you can find a number of testimonials from American women who also report developing breast cancer from their cell phones.
5. Microwave News, May-June 1990. This information relates to studies by Szmigielski et al., 1982, showing that RF/microwave radiation enhances the growth of spontaneous mammary tumors.   In June 1990, the EPA stated in its report titled An Evaluation of the Potential Carcinogenicity of Electromagnetic Fields that numerous animal studies by Szmigielski showed  RF radiation"enhances the growth of spontaneous mammary tumors...enhances the growth of skin tumors...and enhances the growth rate of transplanted lung carcinoma cells, an effect attributed to the lowering of cell-mediated immunity."  Nevertheless, the Wireless Radiation Industry has, without conscience or restraint, placed this noxious radiation in the hands of America's tiniest children with full knowledge that it is a virulent cancer-promoting agent
6. "Study Shows How Radiation Causes Breast Cancer," Natural News, 06-09-2010. See also: "New 3D Mammography Significantly Increases Radiation Exposure and Your Risk of Radiation-Induced Cancer," mercola.com, 02-19-2013. See also  THIS REPORT.
7.  Report of the European Union's REFLEX Project (Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods), November 2004. An in-depth report on the REFLEX project can be found in the on-line brochure Health and Electromagnetic Fields: EU-funded research into the Impacts of Electromagnetic Fields and Mobile Phones on Health published by the European Commission, 02-29-2008. 
8.  "Should Cell Phone Providers Warn Customers of Health Risks? Berkeley Says Yes,"  SaferEmr.com,  July 11, 2018. LINK
9. "A New Problem in Inflammatory Bladder Diseases: Use of Mobile Phones," Koca et al., International Brazilian Journal of Urology, Vol. 40,  No. 4, Rio De Janeiro, Jul -August 2014.  
10. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenicity Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, June 8, 2016. BioEM2016 Meeting, Ghent, Belgium.
11. Dr. David Carpenter made this statement in the 2014 investigative documentary Mobilize, which explores the potential long-term health effects of cell phone radiation. This documentary presents the latest scientific research and shows how the Wireless Radiation Industry uses its immense economic and political power to corrupt public health. More information can be found at www.disinfo.com.
12.  "Cancer: Environmental Factors Might Contribute to 90 Percent of Cancer," www.HNGN.com, 12-18-15. In December 2015, researchers at Stony Brook University in New York made headlines with their re-affirmation that environmental factors andbehavior are the root of about 90 percent of human cancers. The three leading environmental carcinogens are: toxic chemicals, pathogens and electromagnetic frequencies, especially pulsed RF/microwave radiation.
13.  Cancer Facts and Figures, American Cancer Society, 2019.
14.  "Are Laptops Destroying Your Manhood?" Second Opinion Health Alert, Dr. Robert J. Rowen, December 28, 2012.
15. "Exposure to Magnetic Field Non-Ionizing Radiation and the Risk of Miscarriage: A Prospective Cohort Study," Li, et al.,Scientific Reports 7, Article Number 17541 (2017).
16. "Continuous 900-Megahertz Electromagnetic Field Applied in Middle and Late Adolescence Causes Qualitative and Quantitative Changes in the Ovarian Morphology, Tissue and Blood Biochemistry of the Rat," Okatan et al.,  International Journal of Radiation Biology, 2018, Feb; 94(2); 186-198.
17. "Using the Hill Viewpoints from 1965 for Evaluating Strengths of Evidence of the Risk for Brain Tumors Associated with Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones," Hardell et al., Review of Environmental Health, 2013; 28 (2-3):97-106.

18.  Federal Code of Regulations, Title 47,  Chapter 1,  Subchapter A,  Part 2,  Subpart J,  Section 2:1091.http://www.wi-cancer.info/breast_cancer_update.aspx


___



Multifocal Breast Cancer in Young Women with Prolonged Contact between Their Breasts and Their Cellular Phones


Authors

  1. John G. West - Breastlink, Department of Surgery, 230 S. Main Street, Suite 100, Orange, CA 92868, USA
  2. Nimmi S. Kapoor - Breastlink, Department of Surgery, 230 S. Main Street, Suite 100, Orange, CA 92868, USA
  3. Shu-Yuan Liao - St. Joseph Hospital
Abstract

Breast cancer occurring in women under the age of 40 is uncommon in the absence of family history or genetic predisposition, and prompts the exploration of other possible exposures or environmental risks.

We report a case series of four young women-ages from 21 to 39-with multifocal invasive breast cancer that raises the concern of a possible association with nonionizing radiation of electromagnetic field exposures from cellular phones.

All patients regularly carried their smartphones directly against their breasts in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones. All patients had no family history of breast cancer, tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2, and had no other known breast cancer risks. Their breast imaging is reviewed, showing clustering of multiple tumor foci in the breast directly under the area of phone contact.

Pathology of all four cases shows striking similarity; all tumors are hormone-positive, low-intermediate grade, having an extensive intraductal component, and all tumors have near identical morphology. These cases raise awareness to the lack of safety data of prolonged direct contact with cellular phones.


Publication references - 17

Sorted by: Date
Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased 
risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma
Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlberg, Kjell Hansson Mild
2013, Pathophysiology - Article
Carcinogenicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields Robert Baan, Yann Grosse, Béatrice Lauby-Secretan, Fatiha El Ghissassi,
Véronique Bouvard, Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa, Neela Guha, Farhad Islami, Laurent Galichet,
Kurt Straif, on behalf of the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph
Working Group
2011, The Lancet Oncology - Article

Publication citations - 13

Show all
Sorted by: Date


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Is Long-Term Cell Phone Use Linked to Breast Cancer?
A Review of the Evidence
Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:276KB) PP. 136-141
DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2016.54016     
Cancer of the breast is the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide.
The majority of cancer of the breast cases (95%) is not hereditary. Can long-term cell phone use be linked to breast cancer? It is unlikely that electromagnetic radiation is involved, but it could possibly be due to the generated heat (cell phones only occasionally transmit when people are not talking on them). Therefore, is there any method or reported statistics that can be used to link the increasing breast cancer incidence with cell phone use and placement? Some young women who placed their mobile devices, including cell phones, in their bra believe
d that it caused their cancer because it was on the same side and in the same area their phone was adjacent to and came into contact with their skin for prolonged periods. This review highlights what is known about the link between cell phone use, which continues to increase rapidly, and breast cancer explores the association between prolonged exposure to non-ionizing radiation from cell phones and breast cancer. In conclusion, until more data areobtained concerning whether carrying a cell phone is associated with breast cancer, great care should be taken to avoid any potential risks. Strenuous efforts should be made to encourage users of cell phones to follow mobile device manufacturers’ recommendations, and if possible, to avoid skin contact until the potential risks, if there are any, are fully understood.
The incidence of women cancer of the breast below the age of 40 is low, and it is even lower in the absence of any history from her family related to genetic predisposition. There is thus a need to explore other possible predisposing or possible environmental causes that can account for these few remaining breast cancer cases. The American Cancer Society [1] identified a group of female patients aged 21 - 39 years old with invasive multifocal breast cancer. There were thus increased concerns related to exposure to cell phones electromagnetic field to non-ionizing radiation. These women that carry their cell phones directly against their breasts in their brassieres for up to 10 hours per day for several years have developed breast cancer immediately beneath the placement of their phones without any family history of breast cancer. A review of their imaging breast scans revealed the presence of multiple clustering tumor foci directly under the area of phone contact with the breast. Such occurrences raised the issue of a lack of safety information in cases of direct contact with cell phones for long periods of time. In general, it is unlikely that women would consider such placement of their cell phone could lead to breast cancer. Therefore, cell phones, which are frequently used, would be considered harmless, yet recent research has reported that there may be a relationship between tumor growth in the breast and non-ionizing cell phone radiation [2] .
The development of invasive cancer of the breast will occur in one out of eight women over a lifetime and one out of 36 will die from it. Although breast cancer rates are decreasing thanks to early diagnosis, there are more than 2.8 million cancer of the breast survivors in the United States (US) [1] .
Cell phones are radios for two-way microwaves that should not be kept close to the body. The soft fatty breast tissue readily absorbs such radiation. There are a series of case detected on young women who developed breast cancer despite not having a family predisposition to breast cancer. The breast tumors were present unusually close to the skin where they had placed their cell phones in their bras. Doctors advise women not to keep their cell phones in their bra. In a recent research investigation performed by Volkow et al. [3] , women received fluorodeoxyglucose-PET scans, which revealed that levels of glucose metabolism had increased due to radiofrequency exposure waves similar to those produced by cell phones, but the clinical significance of such findings was unclear.
The risk of a woman developing cancer is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors. However, breast cancer occurs infrequently in younger women (less than 40 years of age) who have no family predisposition or genetic history; yet, some of these women do get the disease, which raises suspicions that environmental triggers may play a role [4] .
The collected data from most previous studies on cell phones was acquired in the 2000s, and since then, cell phones have become widespread for many reasons(e.g. because of relatively low prices and marketing), which is beyond the scope of this review. In 2011, it was estimated that the number of subscribers for mobile device services, including those for tablets and cell phones, rose above 300 million in the US, and the number of worldwide subscribers topped 6 billion [5] . Young adults and children are now more than ever seen carrying tablets and cell phones and are spending a considerable amount of time with a cell phone in close proximity to their body [6] . Unfortunately, this puts this growing number of users at the highest risk of harm related to electromagnetic radiation (e.g. prepubertal breast buds, the growth of which is potentially believed to be linked to adverse biological consequences of radiation [7] . Some young users have opened themselves up to even greater exposure, as they have been seen carrying more than one device, which might indeed increase their risk even more.
Cardis [8] reported that keeping a mobile phone in one’s bra might induce breast cancer. He saw relatively young patients with breast cancer, 39 years old or less, so there would be little chance that some other environmental factor was the cause. He also reported that the women themselves believed that the cancer was due to having kept their cell phone in their bra. In the case of a young woman with breast cancer at age 21, her breast MRI revealed a typical pattern of ductal enhancement, where the “bright spot” accompanied a ductal distribution.
In 2013, a study conducted at the University of California reported that four women aged 21 - 39 years were diagnosed with multifocal breast cancer that originated at different locations in the breast [9] . The medical history of these women revealed that there was no family predisposition to breast cancer. However, these women all regularly kept their cell phones in their bra adjacent to their breast during the day, which was estimated to be about 10 hours every day for several years. Each presented with tumors in the same regions of their breasts, next to where their phones were kept.
A young woman was of the opinion that keeping her mobile phone in her bra led to her cancer.
She believed it was because her breast cancer was diagnosed in the same breast and at the exact location where her mobile phone usually came into contact with the skin of her breast.
She said that for the past three to four years she usually had her mobile phone in contact with her breast and that her cancer was discovered right where the phone was kept all the time. To explain this event scientifically, a study was conducted by Schuz et al. [2] and they noted immediately that she carried her mobile phone as described, and that it roughly covered the upper outer quadrant of her breast, which is a common location for breast cancer to occur because of the presence of more breast tissue, in accordance with breast anatomy. They then concluded that this was only a coincidence.
In another case, a mother attributed her 21-year-old daughter’s breast cancer to her mobile phone, because her daughter kept her cell phone in her bra, and she was healthy and young, with no history of breast cancer in her family or any genetic predisposition to cancer [10] .
Observations in experimental studies to assess the effects associated with the use of mobile phones in humans cannot be directly related to conventional mechanisms of thermal injuries. The effects observed are within the range of normal physiology, and are therefore difficult to ascertain with respect to increased health risk. However, it can be concluded that mechanisms other than established thermal mechanisms exist. Because of the present fragmentary scientific database, a precautionary approach is recommended when dealing with the effects of radiation from radio and microwave frequencies on the individual and the general population [4] .
Breast cancer occurs sporadically in women in the postmenopausal period without any family history or predisposition. Breast cancer is uncommon in younger women (20 - 30 years old). The incidence is <5% of all breast cancer cases, the latter of which is normally associated with a genetic predisposition. Hardell et al. [10] [11] detected four cases of multifocal sporadic breast cancer in younger women, indicating a potential correlation between direct skin contact of mobile devices for long periods with breast cancer. To date, there is no clear clinical or scientific evidence to suggest a significant correlation between the risk of breast cancer and exposure to electromagnetic radiation resulting from cellular device emissions. Few research and scientific articles have described that such a relationship exists, whereas other studies have not confirmed such a relationship, although the International Agency for Research on Cancer did classify electromagnetic radiation as radiofrequency waves emitted by mobile devices as a possible predisposing cause of cancer [12] .
Electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones results in both a thermal and non- thermal biological effect. It was reported that radiofrequency waves, which are part of electromagnetic radiation, have insufficient ionization energy to affect molecules and are unable of causing direct damage to DNA [13] . This inability to cause direct DNA damage was also shown with either therapeutic or diagnostic radiation exposure [11] . The primary thermal effect of cell phones resulted in the heating of tissue, which is of controversial clinical importance [4] [14] . Cellular device-emitted electromagnetic radiation interacts within body tissues to cause electromagnetic currents leading to changes in the microenvironment of tissues [15] .
In the study performed by INTERPHONE, a possible effect of prolonged and extensive use of cell phones was described, though more investigation is needed. Recently, a meta-analysis study showed a link between acoustic neuromas and gliomas in a specific type of heavy cell phone user who tended to always use the phone on one side of the skull, identified as an ipsilateral user, compared with less frequent users and nonusers [11] . Surprisingly, the cancer risk was highest in those with prolonged cell phone use, even in those less than 20 years old.
Safety regulations for mobile phones and tablets were written in 1996 by the Federal Communication Commission in the US [16] . They made their regulations depending on levels of electromagnetic radiation that penetrated a Plexiglas head region in a simulated man weighing 200 lb. This investigation was performed to detect the specific absorption rate (SAR) (i.e. a specific rate of energy deposition in the body after exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones). The Federal Communication Commission has set an exposure limit of up to 1.6 watt/kg of tissue. Any functioning mobile phone that produces < 1.6 watt/kg is considered to be safe. The duration of exposure during an SAR test is 30 minutes and does not reflect the accumulative time of exposure to electromagnetic radiation that one may normally expect from those with prolonged and heavy use habits.
This safe limit complies with previous regulations and studies, both theoretically and experimentally proven using simulation methodology [13] . Furthermore, FCC guidelines do not associate the risks linked with direct contact of the skin with cell phones. This is an important factor with respect to prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation and its direct thermal effect on the occurrence of breast cancer. The user manual of iPhone 4 advises one to carry their phone 1.5 cm or more away from their body [17] . Similarly, the BlackBerry Bold cell phone safety manual advises using a holster to keep the cell phone and to carry it approximately 15 mm away from a user’s skin when using the cell phone (safety and product information 2013).
The reported four young women with breast cancer related to cell phone use are considered to comprise a case with a small sample, therefore negating a causal relationship given that millions of women use cellular devices with an insignificant occurrence rate of breast cancer. Therefore, causality cannot be inferred, and at best an indirect linkage can only be under consideration. In addition, no clear information is available to determine the women number who usually put their phones with skin contact and breasts for long periods and do not develop cancer. On the other hand, exposure time and placement site of mobile phones directly adjacent to the breast could in fact be subject to recall bias (i.e. systematic error due to differences in accuracy or completeness of recall to memory of past events or experiences) [10] .
Baan et al. [14] recorded that they did not come across any study that evaluated a direct relationship between uses of cell phone and cancer of the breast. In addition, the exposure period that extended for years is considered a prolonged time factor. In general, biological effects of electromagnetic radiation on children could be up to several times greater than those on adults [18] . The dividing cells and growing tissue of the breast that occur during puberty may be particularly susceptible to harm or damage from cell phone electromagnetic radiation.
Cell phone use continues to increase rapidly. As of a few years ago, young women
and children increasingly carry all types of mobile devices, including cell phones and
tablets. They tend to be heavy users in terms of time spent in close contact with their
cell phone, even while sleeping. Until more data are obtained regarding inappropriate use
and carrying a cell phone, and their association with breast cancer risk, safety
measures should be heeded to avoid any possible risks from cell phone use.
Strenuous efforts should be made to encourage users of cell phone to follow mobile
device manufacturers’ recommendations and avoid skin contact.
Further research in this area is recommended.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Cite this paper
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